What is Goat Farming?


Goats are reared for milk and meat. Goat is a multi functional animal and plays a significant role in the economy and nutrition of landless, small and marginal farmers in the country. Goat rearing is an enterprise, which has been practiced by a large section of population in rural areas. Goats can efficiently survive on available shrubs and trees in adverse harsh environments in low fertility lands where no other crop can be grown. Around the world, more people drink goat milk than cow milk. Also, more people eat chevon (goat meat) than beef. The World Health Organization says that more than 70% of the world’s population has some allergy to cow milk. The allergic symptoms could be stomachaches, gas, skin rashes and ear infections. An allergy to goat milk is very rare. According to many historians, goats were the first animals to be domesticated by humans. For thousands of years, they have been utilized for their milk, meat, hair, and skins all over the world.

Indian Species of Goat 

Himalayan breed, Pashmina, Chegu, Jamunapari, Beetal, Barbari, Berari, Kathiawari, Surti, Deccania or Osmanabadi, Malabar (or) Tellicherry, Assam Hilly breed etc.

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Advantages of Goat Farming

  1. The initial investment needed for Goat farming is low.
  2. Due to small body size and docile nature, housing requirements and managemental problems with goats are less.
  3. Goats are prolific breeders and achieve sexual maturity at the age of 10-12 months gestation period in goats is short and at the age of 16-17 months it starts giving milk. 
  4. In drought prone areas risk of goat farming is very much less as compared to other livestock species.
  5. Goats are ideal for mixed species grazing. Goats can thrive well on a wide variety of thorny bushes, weeds, crop residues, and agricultural by-products unsuitable for human consumption.
  6. The goat meat is more lean (low cholesterol) and relatively good for people who prefer a low energy diet especially in summer and sometimes goat meat (chevon) is preferred over mutton because of its “chewability”.
  7. Goat milk is easier to digest than cow milk because of small fat globules and is naturally homogenized. Goat milk is said to play a role in improving appetite and digestive efficiency. Goat milk is non allergic as compared to cow milk and it has antifungal and antibacterial properties and can be used for treating urogenital diseases of fungal origin.
  8. Goats are 2.5 times more economical than sheep on free range grazing under semi arid conditions.
  9. Goat creates employment to the rural poor besides effectively utilizing unpaid family labour. There is ample scope for establishing cottage industries based on goat meat and milk products and value addition to skin and fibre.

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